After watching Primal
Fear(1996), several issues about professional responsibility
attract my attention. This film is about a slick, hotshot criminal
lawyer, Martin Vail (acting by Richard Gere), who takes one seemingly
unwinnable case of a young altar boy, Aaron or Roy (acting by Edward
Norton) accused of murdering a Catholic priest. (Refer to Jonathan Broxton). Martin is an
excellent criminal lawyer, who provides competent and diligent legal
service for Aaron, which basically follows the ABA Model Rules of
Professional Conduct 1.1 and 1.3 (following Rule). In addition, two
interesting issues arouse my concern.
新葡萄京娱乐场网址 ，I want to say, the summaries which I am going to write down, are little
chicken-souply. But even the chicken soup is better than the horrible
saying. So let us say something positively to ourselves, and get more
self-confidence~ So communicators live what they communicate. On other
hands, we live like what we say, what we think, what we agree, what we
believe, and so on. You don’t need to clarify how it is happened? But
you need to know that is true. When I was a student, I read a book 《The
Secret》, which was talking about the law of attraction. For that we may
not know weather is true or not, but it is happened all the time.
(1) “How can
you defend someone if you know they did it? … How can you do what you
do?”If we are all
absolutely sure one commits the crime, how can a lawyer defend for a
devil? Does that mean the lawyer share certain characters with the
Now, let’s begin with an example. If your current leader is good at
communicate, and who is connected with people like you, what do you
feel? Will you liste? Will you believe? Will you follow? Even, I want to
ask, do you think is like as the Honey-Moon, don’t you? So if the people
communicate well, we may get hopeness. If the people communicate bad, we
may get hopelessness.
Rule 1.2(b) says: “A lawyer’s
representation of a client, including representation by appointment,
does not constitute an endorsement of the client’s political, economic,
social or moral views or activities.” The Rule indicates that one
lawyer’s defending is unequal to support what the client does. The
responsibility of the lawyer is to provide reliable legal service for
their clients when they are confronting with the allegation and attacks
from the strongest opposing part – the State of Leviathan. As what
Martin said: “I believe in the notion that people are innocent until
proven guilty. I believe in that notion because I choose to believe in
the basic goodness of people. I choose to believe that not all crimes
are committed by bad people, and I try to understand that some very,
very good people do some very bad things.” It is possible to analyze
Martin’s expressions from three aspects. First, man’s nature at birth is
good. Second, if good people do very bad things, they must have specific
reasons so that the crime cannot be attributed to them safe and sound.
Third, average people, like us, are disqualified to judge. Judging
people, especially the client, is none of lawyer’s business. As Chapter
Seven of Matthew said: “Judge not, that you be not judged. For with what
judgment you judge, you will be judged; and with the measure you use, it
will be measured back to you.”
Rust: People out here, it’s like they don’t even know the outside world
exists. Might as well be living in the fucking moon.
Marty: There’s all kinds of ghettos in the world.
Rust: It’s all one ghetto, man, giant gutter in outer space.
Rust: Look. I consider myself a realist, all right, but in philosophical
terms, I’m what’s called a pessimist.
Marty: Um. Ok. What’s that mean?
Rust: Means I’m bad at parties.
Marty: Let me tell you. You ain’t great outside of parties either.
Rust: I think human consciousness was a tragic misstep in evolution. We
became too self-aware. Nature created an aspect of nature separate from
itself. We are creatures that should not exist by natural law. …
We are things that labor under the illusion of having a self, this
accretion of sensory experience and feeling, programmed with total
assurance that we are each somebody when, in fact, everybody’s nobody.
I think the honorable thing for species to do is deny our programming,
stop reproducing, walk hand in hand into extinction, one last midnight,
brothers and sisters opting out of a raw deal.
Marty: So what’s the point of getting out of bed in the morning?
Rust: I tell myself I bear witness, but the real answer is that it’s
obviously my programming, and I lack the constitution for suicide.
Based on the above analysis, before a suspect is found guilty, the
client is innocent and the client has a right to be defended. Lawyer’s
defense does not mean the lawyer endorses his client’s moral views or
we live like what we say
(2) “I’ll let
you in on a little secret, sort of a client-attorney privilege type of a
secret.” Whether Martin
can tell the truth to others, especially the prosecutor, after Roy told
him the truth in the end?
And, why has it happened like that? The answer is CREDIBILITY!
See, we all got what I call a life trap, this gene-deep certainty that
things will be different, that you’ll move to another city and meet the
people that’ll be the friends for the rest of your life, that you’ll
fall in love and be fulfilled. Fucking fulfillment, and closure,
whatever the fuck those two–Fucking empty jars to hold this shit storm,
and nothing is ever fulfilled until the very end, and closure. No, No,
No. Nothing is ever over.
never was an
Rule 1.6(a) regulates: “A lawyer shall
not reveal information relating to the representation of a client unless
the client gives informed consent, the disclosure is impliedly
authorized in order to carry out the representation or the disclosure is
permitted by paragraph (b).” Principally, fiduciary duty does not
allow a lawyer to reveal the information relating to the client to a
third party. Rule 1.6(b) mentions, under several specific circumstances,
a lawyer allows to violate the responsibility of Confidentiality of
Information, for example, “to prevent
reasonably certain death or substantial bodily harm”. At the end
of the movie, Roy stated a client-attorney relationship between them,
gave Martin no informed consent to reveal the information to others. Roy
told Martin there was no Aaron at all. Linda was killed by him and
Rushman, the Catholic priest, was also cut to pieces by him. At that
point, Martin knew Roy’s acting cheated everyone, including himself, and
Roy was not innocent at all. Once Roy’s self-statement is put before the
prosecutor, it is foreseeable to hold a retrial for Roy. However, the
current situation did not fall in Rule 1.6(b) and Martin has to keep the
truth for the sake of Rule 1.6(a).
Credibility is currency for leaders and communicators. With it,
they are solvent, without it, they are bankrupt.
People incapable of guilt usually do have a good time.
illusion of truth”
try to understand that some very,very good people do some very bad
never was an
In conclusion, the Rule forbids Martin to reveal Roy’s information.
后特想写点什么。Mostly, at the first six months, the communication overrides the
credibility. After the six months, the credibility overrides the
communication. and the meaning for credibility is the quality of
deservingto be trusted. So, when we trust others, or we are trusted,
that will be prefect! All things can happen possibly! And the trust can
Pick up what you keep, and you leave the rest behind. People get
You start like that. You live with it.(Maggie)
(3) Other thoughts.
Eventually who you really are will show through, onstage, at work, or at
home. So if you want to connect well with people, you must become the
kind of person you would like to connect with. And the relationship we
have with others are largely determined by the relationship we have with
You are not bad. It’s not you. There’s a weight, and it got its
fishhooks in your heart and your soul.……You got one way out, and it’s
through the grace of God. You’re only how the Lord made you. You are not
flawed. We, you, me, people, we don’t choose our feelings. There’s grace
in this world, and there’s forgiveness for all, but you have to ask for
剧中刻在主教胸前的数字对应的书中写道句子：“No man, for any
considerable period, can wear one face to himself and another to the
multitude without finally getting bewildered as to which may be the
海报上的话简洁些：“Sooner or later, a man who wears two faces
forgets which one is real.”
Martin did an illegal thing, when he was a prosecutor. Then, he decided
to leave and became a defending attorney. He promised himself that he
would reserve his lies for other than his public life. In other words,
he did not want to wrong anyone anymore. Therefore, he believed there
must be some reasons to justify a suspect’s behavior even though the
public all regard the suspect as a criminal. Martin took advantage of
Roy to complete his redemption. On the contrary, Roy utilized Martin to
save his life. Finally, Roy told him the truth, which actually put
Martin into a dilemma – on the one hand, Martin believed Aaron was
innocent; on the other hand, Roy’s escape from the punishment of the law
has ruined his belief. He had no choice but observed the regulation of
the Rule. Let’s imagine the consequences of disobeying of the Rule. If
one attorney does not take priority of client’s interest and reveals the
information relating to the representation of a client to the public,
how can we force a suspect to be honesty to his lawyer? (Ironically, the
clients are likely to cheat their lawyers in real life, even though
there’s a Clause of Confidentiality between them.) Supposedly, we are
arrested for killing someone but actually not. Is it possible to tell
lawyers everything? No! The attorney may reveal one’s early misconduct
to the judge! Conversely, that does harm to clients and to everyone in
the end. Thus, the fiduciary duty between the lawyer and the client,
which is the goal of the Rule, plays a significant role in the operation
of the jurisdiction system.
What If you are not accepting of who you are, If you do not know
your own strengths and weakness, If you are uncomfortable with
yourselves, the attempts we make to connect with others will usually
People. I’ve seen the finale of thousands of lives, man. Young, old.
Each one is so sure of their realness, that their sensory experience
constituted a unique individual with purpose, meaning…so certain that
they were more than a biological puppet. Well, the truth wills out, and
everybody sees once the strings are cut, all fall down.
——On my first day of law school, my professor says two things. First,
“From this day forward, when your mother says she loves you, get a
——”If you want justice, go to a whorehouse. If you want to get fucked,
go to court.”
——Let’s say you have a client who you know is guilty..
——No,don’t even start with that. Our justice system doesn’t care about
that, and neither do I. Every defendant, no matter who he is, regardless
of what he’s done, has the right to the best defense his attorney can
——So where were you with the truth?
——Truth? How do you mean?
——I’m not sure how many ways there are to mean it.
——You think there’s only one? Actually, you’re right, you know.
There’s only one that matters. My version of it, the one I create in the
minds of those 12 men and women sitting on a jury.Now if you want to,
you can call it something else. The…er…The illusion of truth. if you
want. It’s up to you.
Martin will face moral self-condemning in the following days. However, I
prefer to attribute the primal
fearto the prosecutor, Janet Venable. I feel she was too arrogant
to evaluate the case reasonably. She brought her personal affairs into
the criminal tribunal. The prosecutor must be more considerate before
the trial. The prosecutor did no psychiatric examination to the
defendant before the trial, even when the Judge asked: “Miss Venable, if
you would like to re-open the Prosecution’s case and call the State’s
psychiatrist, I will certainly agree to it.” Nonetheless, Miss Venable
said: “No, I don’t think that’s necessary, Your Honor. I think we all
get the picture here.” If the prosecutor can make full preparation and
do more investigation, the outcome will be totally different. We can
hardly measure one person’s mind. If we all believe the suspect is
guilty, we need proof – that’s what prosecutors need to do. Substantive
justice lies nowhere, but the diligence of the Prosecutor Party. Roy
would be at large finally, yet that’s not the problem of Professional Responsibility.
How can you connect with others on common ground if you don’t know and
like yourself? How can you see others clearly if you have an unclear
view of yourself? Those are the tough questions, right? But we’d better
think about it.
Each stilled body so certain that they were more than the sum of their
urges, all the useless spinning, tired mind, collision of desire and
——Come on Connerman, ask it.
——The question you wanted to ask me before.
——I don’t understand, Mr.Vail.
——”How can you do that? How can you fucking defend these fucking
scumbags?”Isn’t that what you wanted to ask me? It is, isn’t it? All
those fucking coy questions, all that bullshit. Bottom line is, “How can
you do what you do?” You think it’s the money, don’t you? The money’s
nice. The money’s very, very nice, Jack. You know, the first thing I ask
a new client is, “You been saving up for a rainy day? Guess what? It’s
rainning.” You think it’s because I want to see my face on the cover of
magazines? My 15 seconds on TV? I love it. I fucking love that shit. I
really do, but guess what. It’s not it. You go to Las Vegas? I don’t go
to Vegas. Why do you think I don’t go to Vegas? Why gamble with money
when you can gamble with people’s lives? That was a joke. All right,
I’ll tell you. I believe in the notion that people are innocent until
proven guilty. I believe in that notion because I choose to believe in
the basic goodness of people. I choose to believe that not all crimes
are committed by bad people, and I try to understand that some very,
very good people do some very bad things.
© 本文版权归小编 Maël
Once we know ourselves and like ourselves and feel comfortable with
ourselves, then we are open to knowing others, liking them, and feeling
comfortable with them, and then we have the potential to connect with
Everybody think they gonna be something they not. Everybody, they got
this big plan. （船上的old man）
——So there never…There never was a Roy?
——Jesus Christ, Marty. If that’s what you think, I’m disappointed in
you. I don’t mind telling you. There never was an Aaron,Counselor.
…Hey,you’re gonna thank me down the road, ’cause this is gonna toughen
you right up, Martin Vail! You hear me? I promise.
The first step toward connecting with ourselves is knowing
（看尸体的肖像）It’s an unmistakable relief, see, because they were
afraid and now they saw for the very first time how easy it was to just
let go, and they saw–in that last nanosecond, they saw what they were,
that you, yourself, this whole big drama, it was never anything but a
jerry-rig of presumption and dumb will and you could just let go finally
now that you didn’t have to hold on so tight…to realize that all your
life– you know, all your love, all your hate, all your memory, all your
pain– it was all the same thing. It was all the same dream, a dream
that you had inside a locked room, a dream about being a person…and like
a lot of dreams, there’s a monster at the end of it.
Do we really know ourselves? If we want to connect with ourselves, we
need to become Self-Aware, and know that comes from Self-Assessment.
Man, you got two ways of looking at it, Tiger. You can die and lose your
shit, or you could live, go make some more shit.
The second step comes from liking ourselves.
Why should I live in history, huh? Fuck, I don’t want to know anything
anymore. This is a world where nothing is solved. Someone once told me,
“Time is a flat circle.” Everything we’ve ever done or will do we’re
gonna do over and over and over again…and again…and again…forever.
For this step which comes from Self-Talking. There is a saying from a
master motivator, The most influential person who will talk to you all
day, is you. So we should be very careful about what we say to us. Even
the truth is we are not prefect, we have our weakness, but just like I
shared before, we have to accept that, that is us, if we can not change
it, we still can live with it.
Look. Everybody knows there’s something wrong with them. They just don’t
know what it is. Everybody wants confession. Everybody wants some
cathartic narrative for it, the guilty especially…Oh, but everybody is
For me I have many weakness, sometimes I act too selfish, sometime I am
not nice enough, sometime I could be very jealousy, sometimes I don’t
share anything, and I am afraid of too many things, I even loss my
temper many times for a day. But I know I am good enough, I have the
ability to be a good communicator, I love reading, I love learning, I
have passion, and I am good at listening, especially I am young enough
to learn everything, to starte new life! Yes! That is good enought!
-You know what happened there between them?
-What always happens between men and women? Reality.(Marty)
Knowing our self better and liking oureslves more, are the cheapest way
to improve ourselves. So, why not?
It’s like in this universe, we process time linearly forward, but
outside of our space time, from what would be a fourth-dimensional
perspective, time wouldn’t exist, and from that vantage, could we attain
it, we’d see our space time would look flattened, like a single
sculpture with matter in a superposition of every place it ever
occupied, our sentience just cycling through our lives like carts on a
See, everything outside our dimension…that’s eternity, eternity looking
down on us. Now, to us, it’s a sphere, but to them…it’s a circle.
We make mistakes every day, such as wake up late, speak in the wrong way
with customers, do not share more time with our family members, and so
In eternity, there is no time. Nothing can grow. Nothing can become.
Nothing changes. So death created time to grow the things that it would
kill…and you are reborn, but into the same life that you’ve always been
I mean, how many times have we had this conversation, detectives? Well,
When you can’t remember your lives, you can’t change your lives, and
that is the terrible and the secret fate of all life. You’re trapped…by
that nightmare you keep waking up into.
To be human is to mess up! (which means to spoil or ruin something,
especially something important or something that has been carefully
planned) To connect, we must fess up! (which means to admitthat you
have done something wrong, although it is not very serious)
The universe forgives all.
And when our actions hurt others, especially someone who loves us so
much, we must admit that what we did was wrong and say sorry. We could
not trun back the clock, but we could do everything in our power to make
I had my time where I wondered if this was all in my head. That time
When we make a commitment, we creat hope. When we keep a commitment, we
Little late in the game to start something like that(painting), I
reckon. Life’s barely long enough to get good at one thing.
You can not speak that which you do not know. You can not share
that which you do not feel. You can not translate that which you do
not have. And you can not give that which you do not possess. To give
it and to share it, and for it to be effective, you first need to have
it, you first need to live it.
Death is not the end.
If you are not willing to try to live something, you probably should not
try to communicate it. That does not mean we have to try to be pervect,
perhapes not, and we can not be.
-Why’d you come back?
-This. Something I had to see to…Before getting on with something else.
My life’s been a circle of violence and degradation long as I can
remember. I’m ready to tie it off.
To be persuasive we must be believable, to be believable we must be
credible, to be credible we must be truthful.
Our lives improve only when we take chances, and the first and most
diffcult risk we can take is to be honest with ourselves. When I
realized that others knew more things than I do, and could do more
things than I do, that is freed me to take off my mask.
Look, as sentient meat, however illusory our identities are, we craft
those identities by making value judgements. Everybody judges, all the
time. Now, you got a problem with that, you’re living wrong.
In WSE, I was good at warming up the new people, later, I found I can
not make a good communication with everyone, I even could not talk with
someone well. Finally, I know that I am not that good at warming them
up, but warming my friends up. So I don’t worry that any more, because
what I really want is to practice my English, not warm new students up,
If warm them up can do me more lessones, then I try my best to do, but
if not, I don’t do it. And then I started to treat myself more kindly, I
asked myself about the painful, and try to understand me better. I
believe I will not need to dress up the mask for many times.
Rust: I shouldn’t even fuckin’ be here, Marty.
Marty: I believe “No shit” is the proper response to that observation.
Rust: Nah, I don’t mean like that. It’s something else.
Marty: Well, so..talk to me, Rust.
Rust: There was a moment– I know when I was under in the dark that
something…whatever I’d been reduced to, you know, not even
consciousness. It was a vague awareness in the dark, and I could…I
could feel my definitions fading. And beneath that darkness, there was
another kind. It was deeper, warm, you know, like a substance. I could
feel, man, and I knew, I knew my daughter waited for me there. So clear.
I could feel her. I could feel…I could feel a piece of my–my pop,
too. It was like I was a part of everything that I ever loved, and we
were all…the three of us, just–just fadin’ out. And all I had to do
was let go…and I did. I said, “Darkness, yeah, yeah.” And I
disappeared. But I could– I could still feel her love there, even more
than before. Nothing…There was nothing but that love.
Then I woke up.
(talking about making up stories of stars)
Rust: It’s just one story, the oldest one. Light versus dark.
Marty: It appears to me that the dark has a lot more territory.
Rust: You know, you’re looking at it wrong, the..sky thing.
Marty: How is that?
Rust: Well, once, there was only dark. If you ask me, the light’s